News in brief from Eksplorasi, newsletter of the
Indonesian Network for Plant Conservation (INetPC)
(a KRI working group)
Conservation organizations in Indonesia face a multitude of internal and external challenges primarily stemming from far too much work to be done with extremely limited resources. Kebun Raya Indonesia (KRI) has identified its own set of challenges and is directing a series of initiatives to work on improvements in management and research, external cooperation, educational awareness, public relations and commercial ventures. In order to address Kebun Raya's corporate mission "to coordinate and conduct conservation action through conservation research and public conservation education," Kebun Raya has outlined major strategies within the categories of conservation, research, management, conservation education and landscape development, with emphases on planning, financial improvement and human resources development. Copies of Kebun Raya Indonesia's Corporate Plan are available by request from the Director. The Strategic Plan for 1993 fleshed out these corporate objectives through activities which are described below.
As part of the Pelestarian Flora Indonesia (Conservation of Indonesian Flora) Project initiated by President Soeharto in 1991, a series of plant collection expeditions were undertaken by Kebun Raya Bogor and Cibodas staff. Locations covered included: Lake Poso, Banche Orchid Park, Morowali Nature Reserve, Lore Lindu National Park and Wahana Sari Sakti Forest Concession (Central Sulawesi); Mount Tadasan, Mount Saru Ledo, Mount Tapako, Mount Palidu, and the areas of Masamba, Sabang and Malili (South Sulawesi); Manolo National Park, Tole Pondre Nature Reserve, Opo-opo Protected Forest (Southwest Sulawesi); Mandor Nature Reserve, Raya Pasi Nature Reserve, Mount Poteng, Mount Emprangan, Mount Empoko and P.T. Batasan Forest Concession (West Kalimantan); Mount Kentawang Nature Reserve and Riam Kanan (South Kalimantan); Mentoko National Park and Kutai National Park (East Kalimantan). In all, over 2500 collections were made. Staff from Kebun Raya Purwodadi and Bali also conducted expeditions, to be described in the next edition of Eksplorasi.
Training courses for new Kebun Raya staff were recently conducted during the months of April and May. Junior staff members were instructed by senior Kebun Raya staff in a variety of courses including: management (leadership), scientific writing, plant collection, literature survey, budget implementation, vegetative propagation, taxonomy and research methods. The latter two subject areas were primarily taught by the head of Herbarium Bogoriense, Dr. Johanes P. Mogea.
Kebun Raya is an official member of Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) and the International Association of Botanic Gardens (IABG). Within Indonesia, KRI has entered into a flora conservation memorandum of understanding with Masyarakat Perhutanan Indonesia (MPI, Indonesian Forestry Society) and is assisting the new British International School in designing an education landscape around the school grounds. Internationally, KRI will be sending a group of staff members to Edinburgh for training in conservation, biodiversity and tissue culture; and will be participating in the Vogelkop Project of the Rijksherbarium in Leiden which will encompass ethnobotanical research in Irian Jaya. Internally, the four Kebun Raya branches are all conducting weekly gorol, or "working together" sessions where the entire staff spend a morning working side-by-side on the garden grounds.
The Teysmann Park was recently renovated following the donation of Rp 16 million (US$ 7593) and technical assistance from the architecture and landscape school of the Trisakti University. Teysmann Park was built in 1884 by Dr. Melchior Treub (Garden director from 1880 to 1910) to commemorate Johannes Elias Teysmann's achievements as curator of the Garden from 1831-1869. It was Teysmann's tireless efforts and professional skills that enriched the Garden during several critical decades, including his tenure as director from 1837-1844.
Femina weekly magazine donated Rp 5 million (US$ 2373) from a Fun Run held in the Garden, and PT Metrodata donated a computer set to help with the Garden's administration.
Kebun Raya Bali (Eka Karya) has built a house containing medicinal plant collections. A new greenhouse designated for research has been built in Kebun Raya Bogor, and an additional eleven greenhouses were renovated in both the Bogor and Cibodas Gardens. Kebun Raya Bogor has established a composting plant utilizing a shredder which produces mulch for the garden grounds. Two new mosques have been built for the Bogor gardens and one in Cibodas.
In a routine training session for otter sighting, members of an Asian Wetland Bureau-sponsored project unexpectedly came upon otter (Aonyx cinerea) tracks and scat in Kebun Raya Bogor. The map diagrammed below shows potential habitat sites in the waterways of the Garden and is taken from the report on The Otters of West Java by Roland Melisch, Listya Kusumawardhani and Priyo Budi Asmoro (in preparation), a joint venture between the Directorate General of Forestry Protection and Nature Conservation (PHPA) and AWB. [Map preparation by Hidayat Sunarsyah and Roland Melisch.]
Indonesian Botanic Gardens (IBG) in partnership with FEMINA, (a weekly women's magazine) has established Friends of The Indonesian Botanic Gardens (Mitra Kebun Raya Indonesia). This new organization is a group of enthusiastic people who cooperate to assist IBG in increasing awareness about the environment while protecting Indonesian flora for the future of humanity.
Friends of the Indonesian Botanic Gardens was launched by the Minister for Environment - Ir. Sarwono Kusumaatmadja - on 3 September 1994 in a special ceremony which included dinner and an outdoor concert. Mitra Kebun Raya Indonesia has three main aims. First, to raise funds and promotional activities in order to improve IBG activities. Second, to improve people's awareness about sustainability and conservation of Indonesian plants. And third, to educate the public on the aims of Botanic Garden and its functions, including plant-related research, explorations and training.
Adults over 18 years of age are welcome to join as individuals, while families with children under 18 years can purchase a family membership. New members will receive a membership card, IBG magazine, free entrance to the four botanic gardens, and invitations to join in Mitra Kebun Raya Indonesia events and activities.
For further details contact:
Friends of The Indonesian Botanic Gardens (Mitra Kebun Raya Indonesia), Jl. Ir. H. Jaunda 13, P.O. Box 309, Bogor 16003. Tel/Fax: +62 (251) 322 187.
Three Kebun Raya Indonesia staff joined a climbing course conducted 28 June - 20 July 1994 at Mt. Tujuh Lake (Jambi) and Tandai Forest (West Sumatera), areas within Kerinci Seblat National Park. The course was supported by the Indonesian Association of Forest Entrepreneurs (Asosiasi Pengusaha Hutan Indonesia) and coordinated by SEAMEA BIOTROP. The participants included staff from the Division of Botany (Indonesian Institute of Sciences), Ministry of Forestry staff and NGO members.
The aims of the course were to learn how to climb trees, move around the canopy, and move to another tree safely, in order to collect and inventory plants Ð most especially epiphytes. The course strengthened human resources for the ongoing KRI plant explorations throughout the Indonesian archipelago (Eksplorasi Flora Nusantara).
In recognition of the impressive genetic and aesthetic value of the more than 1500 species represented in the Kebun Raya collections, the Bogor staff have produced a 20-page introductory booklet on the collections. With more than 80 illustrations, the full-color pamphlet pays tribute to the extraordinary beauty and diversity of wild orchids in Indonesia. Following the booklet the staff hope to produce a full catalog of the collections at the four Kebun Raya.
During the Idul Fitri celebrations this year (14-15 March), Kebun Raya Bogor had an additional reason to celebrate. Over 30,000 visitors daily flocked to witness the blooming of the enormous Amorphophallus titanum Becc. (Arec.), originally from the south-central province of Jambi, Sumatera. The plant is known to bloom sporadically every 3-5 years, producing a blossom of over a meter in diameter with deep maroon coloring on the inside. A pistil-like structure of light beige-yellow coloring emerges from the center of the blossom, causing the height of the flower to reach over two meters (see accompanying photo).
The 360 m 2 Mosque in Kebun Raya Bogor (KRB) was inaugurated by The Indonesian Minister of Forestry - Ir. Djamaloedin Soerjohadikoesoemo- in his capacity as a representative of the Moslem Pancasila Charity Foundation (YABMP) on September 16, 1994. This event was attended by the Chairman of LIPI (Indonesian Institute of Science) - Prof. Dr. Samaun Samadikun - and the Governor of Bogor Residency - Drs. H. Eddy Gunardi.
This Mosque is built under the donation of Rp. 220 million (US $ 110,000) from YABMP and completed with landscaping, pond park, bridge and toilet by KRI's additional fund. Many people, especially visitors, the local community and the KRB staff, use this Mosque to perform religious duties.
Mitsubishi Co., Japan donated 2 vehicles of the PAJERO type to KRI for Flora exploration and Conservation purposes. The donation was given at the same time with the 176th KRI Anniversary and the Son Day in Japan on May, 5 1992. The President of Mitsubishi Co, Japan, Mr. Minoru Makihara gave the vehicle to the Director of KRI, Dr. Ir. Suhirman. The Head of LIPI (Indonesian Institute of Science) also attended.
In addition, Mitsubishi Co. recently donated a seed storage unit to KRI to enhance its research. It located in the New Greenhouse at Kebun Raya Bogor. There are two kinds of storage. One is the Seed Freezer and the other is the Chiller. The dimension of the Seed Freezer is 1.8 x 2.4 x 2.7 m3 and it can adjust the temperature to - 20 degrees C. The Chiller is 3.0 x 4.2 x 2.7 m3 dimension and has a constant temperature of + 4 degrees C. The Storage unites were given by the Director Representative of Mitsubishi Co., Mr N. Tonomura to the Director of KRI on November, 23 1994 at the same time as the departure of the KRI Junior Research exploration teams to Jambi, Sumatera.
The Jamboree of National Information (JAMPENNAS) took place at Kebun Raya Bali on August 25 - 31, 1994. The aims of the Jamboree opened by the Minister of Information- H. Harmoko - were to keep association among the Province informants and to increase their skill or knowledge quality. There were many activities at the Jamboree, such as lectures, exhibitions, social services and the contribution of reforestation plants to the Department of Forestry and rare plants to Kebun Raya Bali.
A group of Indonesian Bird Lovers gave about 3000 birds for KRB to let go free in the Garden. This event happened the afternoon of September, 1 1994. The birds included thrushes and black starlings, among others. At first, the birds were supported with food by KRB as they adapted to their new habitat. The birds like many things for their food such as nuts, insect and fruit. In the future, they are expected to seek food for themselves. So, at this time KRB does not only have a plants collection, but also many birds in it.
Seventeen Junior Researchers of KRI (10 among them were woman) departed on November 23rd to Jambi, Sumatera. The purpose of their trip was to practise ecology research, plant population monitoring, plant identification, exploration, and preparing materials for herbarium storage. Based on their field trip activities and the floristic data gathered, a scientific report on the case study of the Bukit Tapan Forest, Kerinci Seblat National Forest, Jambi will be written and published. This trip ended on December, 6 1994.
KRI provides exursion packages that are called Wisata Flora (Flora Journey). There are three aims of this activity: to help participants, especially students, to know more about their studies connected with flora and the environment; to provide hands-on learning activities, and to stimulate participants' creative capacity in flora and environment appreciation.
The Excursion packages include a brief introduction, discussion, hands-on observation and creative activities such as drawing, writing and games.
The packages' materials are arranged in accordance with the education level as follows :
KRI is offering a special pass to get in the Garden for frequent visitors. People come to KRI for recreation, flora/fauna observation and jogging. During the holidays, children or students could pay Rp. 25 000,00 (about USD 12.5) each per annum and adults could pay Rp. 35 000,00 (about USD 17.5 ) each per annum. For work days, children or students could pay Rp. 50 000,00 ( about USD 25) each per semester and adults could pay Rp. 75 000,00 (about USD 32.5) each per semester.
That price can be compared to daily price e.i. Rp.1 000,00 (about USD 0.5) on work days and Rp. 1 500 ( about USD 0.75) in holidays.
Interested parties can contact "Seksi Jasa dan Ilmiah" at KRI on work days (except Friday) and bring a copy of their ID card and 2 recent photos size 2 x 3 cm.
Friends of KRI is a group of people who are enthusiastic in working together and supporting KRI to increase the awareness of environment and plant protection for the community importance. It was founded on September 1994.
The purposes of Friends of KRI are :
There are two kinds of membership: individual and family members. The advantage of a member include free admission to the garden, receiving the KRI Newsletter and involvment in the Friends of KRI activities such as lectures or trips.
For futhur information contact:
Friends of KRI , Jl. Ir. H. Juanda No. 13, P.O. Box. 211, Bogor 16001. Phone. 65-251 322 187, 321657, 322220, 311362, 311499, Fax. 62-251- 322 187, 313 985.
Amorphophallus titanum Becc. in section VI. C 326 of Bogor Botanic Garden has bloomed. The plant is from Gunung Batu Asal, Muara Imat, Kerinci, Jambi of the Flora Exploration. It was planted on 9 November 1992, the tuber weighing 26 kgs.
The generative phase started on 26th December 1994 and the full bloom of the flower occured on 15th February 1995. The height of the flower is 145 cm and the flower diameter is 63 cm.
As reported in Eksplorasi Vol.1 No. 2, in March 1994, a different Amorphophallus titanum Becc. bloomed. The flower was bigger than the latest one.
Amorphophallus titanum Becc. is the mascot flora of the Indonesian Botanic Gardens (Kebun Raya Indonesia).
Although Kebun Raya Indonesia has had a long history of botanical research activities, the declaration of the year 1995 as the Year of Research is a turning point as Kebun Raya intends to become a leading centre of botanical research. The aim is not only to encourage and intensify the research activities based on her current Research Programme 1995-2000, but also to increase the quality of any research carried out by her staff (researchers). Higher quality scientific papers can only be achieved by conducting higher quality research activities. Better scientific papers can only be created by improving the research insight quality and the research skill of the staff. Therefore these two goals need to be developed. For this purpose a task force named Gugus Tugas "MELATI" Peneliti has been established in Kebun Raya Indonesia which is in charge of the development of research programmes and research activities in Kebun Raya.
Under the supervision of the Director (Dr. Suhirman), the Research Programme 1995-2000 of Kebun Raya was established at the end of 1994. This Research Programme is the basis and the guideline for any research activities conducted in Kebun Raya, and allows KRI's researchers to become specialists in a short time (3-5 years). Basically KRI has set up five projects: The inventory and study of fruit plants; the inventory and study of medicinal plants; the inventory and study of ornamental plants; the inventory and study of carbohydrate and protein-producing plants; and the inventory and study of microflora. With those projects, KRI will present scientific information on selected Indonesian plant species, develop appropriate conservation strategies, increase the number of her collections, and produce plant materials for agriculture, landscape, and industries. To reach those goals KRI needs to continue her exploration activities which were started in 1991, and strengthen and expand her cooperative links with research institutions, goverment agencies and private companies. Whenever possible the projects are linked with universities to enable KRI's staff to gain postgraduate degrees.
For 1995, it is compulsory for all Kebun Raya researchers to publish two scientific papers in the Buletin Kebun Raya based on their own topics.
To develop research skills and scientific knowledge of KRI's researchers, Dr. Peter S. Ashton from the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University will come to Kebun Raya Bogor to review KRI's research activities. The review will be held from 6 to 10 March 1995. As some of KRI's researchers are young workers, such an opportunity will be of great benefit for them to explore and share experiences and knowledge. Moreover, it is hoped that after his visit, some continuing programmes in a more broader sense will be developed between Dr. Ashton (the Harvard University) and KRI in term of research activities.
The availability of literature/references is very important for any researchers. To gain access to the sources of scientific information, therefore, KRI plans to send her staff abroad to do literature surveys, e.g. to Harvard University, the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, Edinburgh University, and Leiden Botanic Gardens. Over one month, those researchers will gather as many references as they can focusing on their own topics (family basis).
In 1995, it is also compulsory for all KRI researchers to complete a book. The literature studies conducted in August 1995 will help those researchers to complete the books they write up. This programme does not necessarily mean that the availability of references is always limited in Indonesia, rather this programme is also aimed to give the staff new experiences and to get some ideas for their future research efforts. Then the result of their research will become the key points of the contents of their books.
In addition, KRI plans to carry out an expedition to Kerinci Seblat National Park. This expedition is different from the previous expeditions. In this expeditions the researchers will walk (a long march) and cross the Kerinci Seblat mountains starting from Bengkulu province and ending in Jambi province. The expedition will take 21 days to finish. The base camps will be developed along the given route in the forests. At the same time the team will collect selected plant species to enrich KRI collections and also conduct ecological research. By using such an approach a detailled description of the features of floristic structure and composition of the mountain mixed rain forests in Kerinci Seblat can hopefully be understood.
To run the conservation tasks successfully, Kebun Raya plans to conduct a Jungle Survival Training Programme from 13 to 19 March 1995 (first group) and at the end of April 1995 (second group). The location will be in the Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park, West Java. All KRI researchers will be involved in the programme. The objective of this programme is to train KRI researchers/explorers to be qualified explorers. The ways and methods how to survive in a jungle situation are shown and practiced during the training programme, e.g. rock climbing, "manusia kalong", and river crossing. Upon finishing the programme it is hoped that the researchers/explorers will be ready both physically and mentally to explore and investigate any forests throughout Indonesian Archipelago. The instructures come from the Army, Marine Forces, and Wanadri, including psychologists and doctors.
Internally Kebun Raya has also been conducting a computer packages' training for her staff. The training has been focused on some computer packages which are useful for paper writing and data processing, including MS Word 6.0, Word Perfect 6.0, Quattro Pro 5.0, and MS Excel. Mastering these computer packages will be of benefit for KRI's researchers to deal with their works efficiently.
Mastering English is also compulsory for all KRI staff as they are always dealing with English literature, international colleagues, and foreign visitors. The Director of KRI also encourages the staff to master English in the year 1995. Since 12 December 1994, Kebun Raya has been conducting an intensive English Course. The course will run for one year, and the teacher is a native English speaker.
The Indonesian Institute for Forest and Environment (RMI) and KRI organized REPLING (The Biodiversity Route in Bogor Botanic Garden) Workshop on 21-22 March 1995 in the meeting room of Bogor Botanic Garden (KRB). REPLING is an environmental and biodiversity education project which has been set up in cooperation with RMI and KRI-LIPI, and supported by Van Melle Green Grants Program. The project has been implemented since April 1994 and has been joined by 1500 students from 6 provinces in Java and Bali.
The aims of the workshop were: 1) to complete the REPLING scenario i.e. materials, methods and performance by the input from participants; 2) to inform the Education Institutions and teachers in Bogor and Jakarta about the REPLING Program. The workshop methods consisted of a presentation, garden trip, group discussion and conclusion.
The workshop was organized to develop the second period of the REPLING program. The presenters were teachers from Denmark, biodiversity education experts, Environment Education Center (PPLH Trawas) and the REPLING work team.
On the first-day, the Workshop was attended by 33 persons and on the second-day was attended by 30 persons. They were teachers from Kindergartens, Primary School, Junior High School, Senior High School, other Institutions and biodiversity education experts.
The conclusions of the workshop were that 1. the workshop aims were achieved, 2. RMI should increase cooperation with the Department of Education and Culture, 3. RMI should implement the REPLING program in locations other than KRB (e.g. Cibodas Botanic Garden, Purwodadi Botanic Garden and Bali Botanic Garden), 4. the REPLING program should organize tours for interested schools.
The workshop was followed by another activity, i.e. Facilitator Training on 20, 27 and 28 May 1995. The aim of the training was to train the REPLING Program Facilitators in methods of Interpretation Guiding. The participants were given training in topics such as child psychology, object interpretation techniques and direct practice in KRB. The 60 participants consisted of selected university students and scholars from a variety education backgrounds. At present, these 60 facilitators are working as part of the Guiding Interpretation Service of REPLING.
For further information contact :
RMI, Jl. Sempur Dalam No.6 Bogor 16154, Tel. 0251-320253, 325530, Fax. 0251-325530.
The KRI Utilization Workshop was conducted in the Guest House of Cibodas Botanic Garden (KRC) on 12 May 1995 in response to a suggestion made by the Minister of Environmental when he inaugurated the Teisymann Park Renovation on 29 November 1993. The participants consisted of 40 persons, including the Minister of the Environment (Ir. Sarwono Kusumaatmadja), the Chairman of the Indonesian Institute of Science (LIPI) (Dr. H. Soefjan Tsauri MSc.), researchers, entrepreneurs, NGO's, biodiversity institutions, and reporters. In addition to commemorating the 178th anniversary of KRI and the 50th year of Indonesian Independence, the aims of the Workshop were to increase the appreciation, association and cooperation of NGO's, biodiversity institutions, entrepreneurs and researches with KRI .
The potential of KRI - which consists of Bogor (87 Ha.), Cibodas (125 Ha.), Bali (154 Ha.), and Purwodadi (85 Ha.) Botanical Gardens - was explained at the Workshop, i.e.:
The conclusions of the workshop were:
The research, administrative and gardens staff of KRI have been trained in Jungle survival for one week. The first period involving 30 persons was conducted from 13 - 19 March 1995. The second period involving 36 persons was conducted from 17-23 April 1995. The trainers were from the Human Resources & Development Centre and consisted of soldiers, doctors and psychologists. The training route went through Cibodas, Mount Pangrango, Mount Gede and Purbawati (Sukabumi) in West Java. The training included survival training, mountain climbing and river crossing.
Tha aim of the training was to improve the performance of KRI staff in conducting plant research, exploration and conservation in Indonesian forests.
Kebun Raya Bali (Eka Karya) is a popular garden for tourists in addition to other interesting destinations in Bali. In 1994, 185,824 people visited the Garden. They were interested in the garden's collection and often wanted to know more about the purpose of botanic gardens and the traditional uses of plants in Balinese culture.
To answer the visitor's questions, Kebun Raya Bali established an ethnobotany museum in 1993. The museum has 53 artifacts on display which represent the Balinese traditional utilization of plants, including tools for "Subak" rice field, materials for Hindu ceremonies, storage and musical instruments. The museum is located in a Balinese traditional housewhich is 600 m sq and has four rooms, Bale Daja, Bale Dangin, Bale Dauh, Bale Tengah and Jineng. Visitors are able to arrange accommodation here.
The island of Bali is famous as "The Island of a Thousand Temples". The Hindu people of Bali (95% of 2.7 million) have built temples everywhere - in their houses, cemeteries, rice fields, gardens, roadsides, holy springs and public places. From the beaches to the mountain-tops.
Temple festivals are held regularly: daily, every 5, 15 and 35 days (1 month), 210 days (6 month); annually, and every 5, 10 and 100 years. In addition, there are incidental ceremonies for the cycles of life, on plantation, for new buildings, or important property (cars, savings-box, tools).
Ceremonies are called Panca Yadnya ('five offerings') and are divided into five classifications: Dewa Yadnya ceremonies for the worship of God; Rsi Radnya ceremonies related to the prophets, priests or priesthood; Pitra Yadnya related to the dead; Manusa Yadnya ceremonies for people, and; Bhuta Yadnya sacrifices to placate the negative.
The offerings (Upakara, banten, sajen) at such ceremonies consist of plants, animals, fire and holy water (Tirtha). Descriptions of old manuscripts (such as Kesuma Dewa, Plutuk Ngabem) on palmleaf, Balinese Lontar, are called Serati and are often made by Balinese women.
Materials for use in these ceremonies is usually collected from plants cultivated around the houses or temples, although some is still collected from wild plants such as Cynodon dactylon, Imperata cylindrica and Anaphalis japanica. Many flowers and rare plants are also sold in the markets or at ceremonial shops.
Approximately 335 species (94 Families) of native and introduced plants have been recorded being used in Balinese rituals. The most commonly used are coconut, bamboo, banana and rice.
Since 1992, Kebun Raya Bali has been developing a special collection of ceremonial plants near Batu Meringgit Temple, on 5.7 hectares. To date, 98 species (77 genera, 42 families) have been planted. In addition to improving the Garden's collection, this collection is also important for conservation, research, education, a source of material for reintroductions, and for conserving genetic resources.
In 1990, the Government of Bali selected two plants commonly used in traditional ceremonies as Bali's floral emblems, Dysoxylum densiflorum (Majegau) and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis.
Diane and Peter Wyse Jackson of Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) recently installed BG-Recorder at Kebun Raya Bogor and Cibodas. BG-Recorder is a record keeping and management database system for botanic gardens, primarily designed to promote and assist their plant conservation activities. BG-Recorder will enable Kebun Raya Indonesia to more rapidly record new plant accessions, document its collections, produce an Index Seminum, prepare International Transfer Format (ITF) records for exchange, print display labels, and make herbarium and seed packet labels. In the future, the database will also be installed in Kebun Raya Purwodadi and Kebun Raya Bali.
In October 1995 Kebun Raya Bogor celebrated the return home of three research staff who recently completed MSc studies in the UK. Two undertook studies in Tissue Culture to the University of Reading, and the other in Plant Taxonomy at Edinburgh University. Their further study and experiences will strengthen the research activities at Kebun Raya Bogor.
On Saturday 14 October 1995, the Friends of the Indonesian Botanic Gardens (Mitra Kebun Raya Indonesia) together with the Association of German Alumni held an Octoberfest celebrating the natural environment. The event was attended by approximately 2000 people including the Indonesian Minister for the Environment. Numerous environmental NGOs presented displays of their activities.
The Research Staff of Kebun Raya Bogor attended a course titled 'The Role of Statistics in Research' from 6 November to 9 December 1995 at the Bogor Agricultural University. The aim of the course was to give the research staff training in hypotheses setting and testing,the design of statistically valid experiments and in the use of various statistical methods for analyzing data.
The course included a general introduction to computers and statistical analysis software, as well as training in hypothesis development and testing, sampling techniques and experimental design with replication. Some of the statistical analysis methods covered during the course included one-way and two-way factorial analyses of variance, linear and non-linear regressions and multivariate analyses.
Dr Peter Ashton of Harvard University, U.S.A., spent one week in November 1995, reviewing the research projects of the Research Staff at Kebun Raya Bogor. The aim of his time spent with the staff was to discuss and provide advice on various aspects of the research being conducted, including overall and specific objectives, hypotheses and methods.
Dr Ashton also presented a lecture on ecology, with particular emphasis on the ecological factors influencing variation in species richness in tropical rainforests. During his discussions he used many examples from his own research and considerable knowledge of South-East Asian forests.
During 1995, Kebun Raya Bogor was visited by a total of 1,323,186 tourists, a weekly average of 25,446 people. 1,262,723 of the visitors were Indonesian tourists, mostly on day trips from Jakarta. The rest (61,463) were international tourists:
The busiest day of the week is Sunday when usually approximately 15,000 visitors enter the Gardens. On National holidays this number can easily double, with more than 30-40,000 visitors through the gates.
On Saturday 11 November, country delegates to the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity visited Kebun Raya Bogor. During the visit they ate lunch in Istana Bogor (Bogor Palace) located adjacent to Kebun Raya Bogor. Istana Bogor was the primary residence of the Dutch Governors-General of the East Indies from 1870-1942 and is now one of five official homes of the Indonesian President. Lunch was followed by a tour of the gardens and a display on the history of Kebun Raya Bogor and the current research and education activities being conducted.
Head of the Scientific Services and Education Division of KRI, Mr. Sukendar, visited Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney (RBGS) from 29 February to 18 March 1996. The purpose was to conduct a comparative study of education services and policies. In addition to spending time with staff of the Education Services, Mr. Sukendar spent time with the Education Manager (Mrs. Noila Berglund); the Publication, Interpretation & Graphic Design Manager (Mr. Gary Bridle); the Marketing Manager (Mr. Andrew Mitchell); and the Corporate Sponsorship Manager (Ms. Janet Buxton).
RBGS consists of Sydney, Mt Annan and Mt Tomah Botanic Gardens. Each has developed it own education programs for students from Kindergarten, Primary School, Junior Secondary School, Senior Secondary School and for Professional Development Activities. Topics include science and technology; human society and the environment; mathematics; and creative and practical arts. For Professional Development Activities, the gardens conduct special courses, training, workshops and conferences.
Drs. Sukendar will use the information gathered during his visit to develop and improve the education services provided by KRI.
KRI, with its Research, Development and Exploration of the Indonesian Flora Project has been playing it's role in the conservation of the Indonesian flora. This project includes four sub-projects, including The Flora Exploration Project for Montane and Wet Climate Areas. Most of the specimens collected for the sub-project are planted in the Cibodas Botanic Garden, West Java.
The objectives of this Sub-Project are:
During 1995-1996 four exploration teams were sent into the field. The locations chosen for study and collection were Central Kalimantan, West Kalimantan, Aceh, and South Sulawesi.
During 1995-1996, the number of collections made successfully was 1187, which consisted of 441 orchid collections (37%), 727 non-orchid collections (61%) and 19 (2%) collections not identified to Family. Collections were made from 83 Families and 251 Genera. Of the 251 Genera, 185 were non-orchid. 94 (8%) of the collections represented species or taxa new to the Bogor/Cibodas Botanic Gardens. The number of new collections is one means of assessing the success of the Flora Exploration Project.
As a part of the program to develop the scientific capacity of KRI, research staff from the gardens are being sent to visit international specialists working in the same or similar fields. These visits are for periods of 3 weeks, during which the Indonesian staff spend time with their international colleague discussing research or learning specific techniques. During the 3 weeks staff also conduct extensive literature searches to collect literature unavailable or difficult to obtain in Indonesia.
Ms. Yuzammi of Bogor Botanic Garden visited the Royal Botanic Garden Sydney (RBGS) from 29 February to 18 March 1996. Ms. Yuzammi spent her time with Dr Alistair Hay discussing taxonomic research on Homalomena and Schismatoglottis (Araceae). She also gained much useful knowledge and experience on the taxonomy and identification of Araceae in general, and was able to conduct a literature review during her stay.
In April, 2 other Bogor Botanic Garden staff will spend 2 weeks with Dr. Ruth Kew at the Malaysian Agricultural University, Kuala Lumpur. Ms. Sri Rahayu will spend time studying the taxonomy of Hoya (Asclepiadaceae) and Ms. Sugiarti will study Jasminum (Oleaceae).
The collection and disposal of garbage from Bogor Botanic Garden is one of the most serious management problems facing staff. With in excess of 1.2 million visitors each year an enormous quantity of litter is generated, much of which is not usually placed in garbage bins.
The Rotary Club Bogor initiated the Botanical Garden Clean Campaign (Kampayne Kebun Raya Bersih) which was launched on 18 May 1996 on the occasion of the 179 Anniversary of Bogor Botanic Garden. The campaign is being run every Saturday, Sunday and public holiday for one full year. It is co-managed by The Friends of the Indonesian Botanic Garden (Mitra Kebun Raya Indonesia), and supported by Paguyuban Bogoriensis (a group of successful people of Bogor origin).
The target of the campaign are the holiday makers in the botanic garden, the message is 'keep your environment clean'. The message is directed towards young children through a story acted-out by two 'clowns', Pak Bersih (Mr Clean) and Ulat Sampah (Trash Worm).
Pak Bersih is concerned about cleanliness, especially in the botanic garden, because he knows that only by being clean in every way can we maintain our health. He leads the clean campaign by collecting trash himself, and also tries to find the sources of litter.
Ulat Sampah enjoys seeing scattered trash, which serves as his playground. He persuades everybody to litter.
The story acted-out by the clowns involves Ulat Sampah meeting a group of children in the gardens who have been littering. Ulat Sampah then joins them in littering more and playing with the litter. Pak Bersih then arrives and engages in a fight with the stubborn worm who does not listen to his advice, and instead mocks at Pak Bersih with his clean campaign. Pak Bersih wins the fight, Ulat Sampah surrenders and promises not to litter again. Together, Pak Bersih and Ulat Sampah encourage the watching children to join them in collecting the litter. The dialogue between the two characters and with the children promotes messages and information about keeping our environment clean.
In addition, 140 specially designed rubbish bins are gradually being installed at strategic spots throughout the garden. Garden's visitors are encouraged to separate their garbage into bins for plastic and non-plastic rubbish.
The campaign is structured to be a strong advertising vehicle. Companies and individuals can promote their products, services and image. Advertising rates generate the required finance to carry the project through for one year.
KRI represented Indonesia at the 6th annual Orchid Show Okayama 1996 in Japan from 29 April to 5 May 1996. The theme was "Symphony of Orchids". Many countries were invited to participate in the show, including USA, China, New Zealand, Myanmar, Malaysia, Madagascar and Italy. Many Japanese nurseries and botanic gardens also participated.
With the exception of invited countries, participants were organized into three categories: floral arrangement, individual flowers and garden arrangement.
KRI's booth was a garden arrangement and amongst other species on display were Phalaenopsis gigantea and Bulbophyllum phalaenopsis which both have giant leaves. The giant leaves of these species attracted much attention.
The Show was attended by many visitors as it occurred during the period of 'golden holidays' for Japanese people.
KRI and Chevron and Texaco Indonesia Foundation (YSCTI) are collaborating to survey and publish information on the unique flora of Bukit Tigapuluh National Park, Kerumutan Sanctuary and Mahato Protected Forest in Riau Province. YSCTI is a social foundation interested in environment and nature conservation. One of its activities is to produce publications on the Indonesian flora for the development and promotion of science and flora conservation.
Bukit Tigapuluh National Park, Kerumutan Sanctuary and Mahato Protected Forest are facing serious problems which threaten their future as conservation sites. This project will collect and publish in an attractive format, valuable information about the flora of the areas which will be an essential resource for future conservation activities and for the promotion of ecosytem conservation in both the local and national community.
The book will be well illustrated and contain general information on the three regions as well as the interesting species of flora which occur there. There will also be dicussion of the Unique, Endangered and Protected Flora; Timber Tree Species; Medicinal Plants; Orchids; Ornamental Plants; and Fruit Plants. A preliminary flora survey by KRI staff has already been conducted which also assessed current and potential future threats to the locations. The preliminary survey will be followed by more intensive field data collection during the next 8 months.
The publication will be available free to institutions working in education, science and conservation, especially colleagues of the YSCTI and KRI.
Since it's establishment in 1817, Bogor Botanic Garden (BBG), has played an important role, not only in the role of biodiversity protection, conservation and education but also in the distribution of economic plants in Indonesia and throughout SE Asia. BBG is known as the first point of introduction of the oil palm (Elaias guineensis) into SE Asia. BBG has also played a role in the introduction and development of other economic species, for example, vanilla, tea, coffee, chocolate, rubber, latex, cassava, cinnamon, fibre, sago and cotton. Nowadays, BBG is not only a research centre but also plays an important role in tourism and education.
Along with the increasing of rate of development and population growth, rates of industry growth and deforestation are also raising. These activities are causing environmental pollution. For example, on a small scale air pollution can only affect limited areas, while acid rain can cause affects on a regional scale. In response to the development of Bogor City which is decreasing the quality of the environment and therefore poses a long term threat to the Bogor Botanic Garden, The Friends of Indonesian Botanic Gardens (MKRI) conducted a one day seminar on 30 November 1996, "Should the next generation lose the gardens?". Speakers included Prof. Otto Sumarwoto (Ecologist), Ir. Zain Rachman (Land scape architect), Hamrat Hamid (Environmental Impact Management Agency in Indonesia) and local government staff.
There are many problems facing the BBG, firstly, factors external to BBG and Bogor City, (eg. acid rain, global warming) and secondly, internal factors (eg. air pollution, raising temperatures, and pressure from visitors). Those problems can be presented as follow:
Problems faced by BBG are a result of socio-economic development of Bogor City, factors which are outside of BBG authority. In order to findsolutions to such problems, many institutions need to be involved e.g. local government, private corporations, and public. These groups need a parallel view on the role and importance of BBG, city planning, and socio-economic activities. BBG needs to have a coordination ability amongst the institutions involved. However, many threats to the BBG collections, such as acid rain, are not able to beinfluenced by the BBG and local government authorities. It has been noted that air pollution in Jakarta and industrial activities around Bogor City cause acid rain.
Some considerations for solving the problems
Eka Karya Botanic Garden Bali has become a popular tourist destination near the Bedugul tourist resort, central Bali. This is indicated by the 9% annual increase in visitors to 185,824, of which 13,967 were international tourists.
The most common question asked by visitors is "What is the unique plant of the Garden?". As there is not yet an official floral emblem for the garden, this is a difficult question to answer.
There are several memorial plantings in honor of guests to the gardens. Three Chairmen of the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) have planted plants. On 30 April 1976 Prof. Dr. Ir. Tubagus Bachtiar Rivai planted Chamaecyparis obtusa near the office building at a ceremony to commemorate the extension of the garden by 50 ha to become its' present 154.5 ha. On 26 June 1990 Prof. Dr. Ir. Samaun Samadikun together (LIPI) with Prof. Dr. Astrid Susanto (from the National Planning Board - BAPPENAS) planted two holy Banyan trees (Ficus benjamina) in front of the Ethnobotanical Museum overlooking Lake Beratan. Prof. Dr. H. Soefjan Tsauri MSc, planted a White Banyan Tree (Ficus benjamina) an intersection in the gardens when he first visited them from 27-29 July 1995.
Members of the Local Government of Bali Province, when visiting the garden on 26 January 1991, planted several special plants. The Governor of Bali, Prof. Dr. Ida Bagus Oka, planted the Balinese Floral Mascot, Bali Majegau (Dysoxylum densiflorum). The Regent of Tabanan, Colonel I Ketut Sundria planted the endangered tree fern Paku Kidang (Dicksonia blumei). The magic plant Kayu Jeleme (Knema ceneria) was planted by I Gusti Putu Raka SH, Chairman of the Bali Parliament.
According to Ida Bagus Puja, on of the 5 original workers in the garden, all original staff planted a memorial plant Cemara Geseng (Casuarina junghuhniana) near the office building. This species was chosen because it is a native pioneer species, as can be seen on Tapak Hill, and is also used as a traditional medicinal plant and in traditional Balinese rituals.
Originally, plantings in the garden were primarily Gymnosperms, so these types of trees feature well in the collections and may be a good choice as the floral emblem of the gardens. However, in connection with the Balinese Hindu culture, an important ceremonial plant would also be a good choice. Ceremonial plants can be seen near the Batumeringgit Temple, including Elaeocarpus grandiflorus and Medinilla speciosa. Most visitors want to see orchids and flowering plants, such as Vanda tricolor, Paphiopedilum javanicum, Coelogyne speciosa and Rhododendron javanicum. Most Indonesian visitors like to see plants from other countries such as Gingki biloba from China and Prunus puddum from the Himalaya.
This year the garden has been promoting five special useful plants, Casuarina junghuhniana, Podocarpus javanicus, Michelia champaca, Elaeocarpus grandiflorus and Pinanga javana. A special information board was constructed providing brief information on the uses, habitat and growth habit of the species.
So, which plant can be regarded as the unique symbol of the Eka Karya Botanic Garden? Like Bogor Botanic Garden, with its symbol of Amorphophallus titanum, the Eka Karya Botanic Garden needs to select a floral emblem.
Living fences are a traditional part of Javanese agricultural systems. Javanese (Central and East Java) and Sundanese (West Java) people use the plants cultivated in these fences as physical barriers, and food plants. In recent years this tradition has changed as traditional farming practices have changed. Residential development and higher technology are increasingly transforming the landscape into residential, recreational, and agricultural areas. The size of home gardens has decreased and been accompanied by a tendency to plant low maintenance, ornamental species and a reduced dependence on traditionally cultivated species.
Research by staff of the Indonesian Botanic Gardens indicates that at least ten species are commonly cultivated for living fences. All ten species are multifunctional, thereby increasing their value. Besides their use as living fences to protect crops from wild animals, leaves are also often eaten as 'lalap' (raw vegetables dish eaten with rice), and various parts of the plants are used in traditional medicines and as traditional ornamentation.
Species commonly grown as living fence plants include: